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IWD 2020 – Reference list

Reference list for the RCOG's event International Women’s Day – "We need to talk about race", held on 6 March 2020


1 Ali N, Burchett H. Experiences of maternity services: Muslim women's perspectives.   London: Maternity Alliance. 2004. Copy in RCOG Library.

2 Annah Psarros. Mothers’ voices: exploring experiences of maternity and health in low income women and children from diverse ethnic backgrounds. Maternity Action 2018

3 Born In The UK Project Group. Born in the UK Investigating maternity and postnatal care needs amongst UK-born ethnic minorities: perceptions from mothers and health care providers. London. City University 2007. Copy in RCOG Library.

4 Chitongo, S. Midwives experiences of caring for high risk women from Black Asian Ethnic minority groups. Mary Seacole Development Award 2018/ 2019.   London: Department of Health. 2019; 99. Copy in RCOG Library

5 Collingwood Bakeo A. Investigating variations in infant mortality in England and Wales by mother's country of birth, 1983-2001. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2006; 20(2):127-39.

6 Ellis N. Birth experiences of South Asian Muslim women: marginalised choice within the maternity services.  In: Kirkham M ed. Informed choice in maternity care. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. 2004; 237- 255. Copy in RCOG Library

7 Henderson J.  Carson C.  Jayaweera H.  et al.  Recency of migration, region of origin and women's experience of maternity care in England: evidence from a large cross-sectional survey. Midwifery 2018; 67: 87-94. Copy in RCOG Library

8 Henderson J; Gao H; Redshaw M. Experiencing maternity care: the care received and perceptions of women from different ethnic groups. BMC Pregnancy & Childbirth. 2013; 13(196).

9 Higginbottom AMA, Evans C, Morgan M, et al. Experience of and access to maternity care in the UK by immigrant women: a narrative synthesis systematic review. BMJ Open. 2019; 9(12): e029478

10 Lilian Anekwe. Ethnic disparities in maternal care.  BMJ 2020; 368:m442.

11 Raleigh VS, Hussey D, Seccombe I, Hallt K. Ethnic and social inequalities in women’s experience of maternity care in England: results of a national survey. J R Soc Med 2010; 103: 188–198.

12 Royal College of Midwives. Making maternity services work for black and minority ethnic women: a resource guide for midwives. London: Royal College of Midwives. 2004.
Copy in RCOG Library    

13 RCM. Vision 2000.  London: Royal College of Midwives. 2000; 20. Copy in RCOG Library

14 Straus L, McEwen A, Hussein FM. Somali women's experience of childbirth in the UK: Perspectives from Somali health workers. Midwifery 2009; 25(2):181-6.
Copy in RCOG Library


BME Health workers

1 Esmail A, Everington S. Racial discrimination against doctors from ethnic minorities.   BMJ 1993; 306(6879):691-2.

2 Kline, Roger.  The “snowy white peaks” of the NHS: a survey of discrimination in governance and leadership and the potential impact on patient care in London and England. London. Middlesex University, 2014

3 NHS England and NHS Improvement. A fair experience for all: Closing the ethnicity gap in rates of disciplinary action across the NHS workforce. NHS England, 2019

4 RCM. BME Midwives, disciplinary proceedings and the workplace race equality standard; London. RCM, 2016. Copy in RCOG Library

5 RCM. Working better together: a good employment guide for midwives.
London: Royal College of Midwives. 2004; 82. Copy in RCOG Library

6 West, Elizabeth; Nayar, Shoba. A review of the literature on the experiences of black, minority and internationally recruited nurses and midwives in the UK healthcare system. London. University of Greenwich, 2016.


United States and Global

1 Bingham D, Jones DK, Howell EA. Quality Improvement Approach to Eliminate Disparities in Perinatal Morbidity and Mortality. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am
2019; 46(2):227-238.

2 Braveman P, Heck K, Egerter S, Dominguez TP, Rinki C, Marchi KS, Curtis M. Worry about racial discrimination: A missing piece of the puzzle of Black-White disparities in preterm birth? PLoS ONE 2017; 12(10): e0186151.

3 Jain JA, Temming LA, D'Alton ME, et al. SMFM Special Report: Putting the "M" back in MFM: Reducing racial and ethnic disparities in maternal morbidity and mortality: A call to action.  American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2018; 218(2):B9- B17.

4 Jamila Taylor, Cristina Novoa, Katie Hamm, and Shilpa Phadke. Eliminating Racial Disparities in Maternal and Infant Mortality A Comprehensive Policy Blueprint 2019.

5 Moroz L, Riley LE, D'Alton M, Brown HL, Davis AR, Foley M, Graves CR, Sheffield JS, Zerden ML, Bryant AS. SMFM Special Report: Putting the "M" back in MFM: Addressing education about disparities in maternal outcomes and care.   Am J Obstet Gynecol 2018; 218(2):B2-B8.

6 Ozimek JA, Kilpatrick SJ. Maternal Mortality in the Twenty-First Century. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 2018; 45(2):175-186.

7 Small MJ, Allen TK, Brown HL. Global disparities in maternal morbidity and mortality. Semin Perinatol 2017; 41(5):318-322.


Refugees and Asylum seekers

1 Asif S, Baugh A, Jones NW. The obstetric care of asylum seekers and refugee women in the UK.   The Obstetrician and Gynaecologist 2015; 17(4):223-31.

2 Balaam MC, Kingdon C, Thomson G, et al. 'We make them feel special’: the experiences of voluntary sector workers supporting asylum seeking and refugee women during pregnancy and early motherhood. Midwifery 2016; 34:133-40. Copy in RCOG Library

3 Fair F, Raben L, Watson H, Vivilaki, F. Migrant women's experiences of pregnancy, childbirth and maternity care in European countries: A systematic review. PLoS One 2020; 11; 15(2): e0228378.

4 Goodwin L.  Hunter B.  Jones A. Immigration and Continuing Inequalities in Maternity Outcomes: Time to re explore the Client-Provider Relationship.
International Journal of Childbirth 2017; 5(1) 12-19. Copy in RCOG Library

5 Heslehurst N, Brown H, Pemu A, Coleman H, Rankin J. Perinatal health outcomes and care among asylum seekers and refugees: a systematic review of systematic reviews.   BMC Med 2018; 16(1):89.

5 Lee B. Inequality in maternity care – where are we going?  RCM Midwives Journal 2002; 5(7):228- 31. Copy in RCOG Library

6 Lephard E, Haith-Cooper M. Pregnant and seeking asylum: exploring women's experiences 'from booking to baby'.  British Journal of Midwifery 2016; 24(2):130-6. Copy in RCOG Library

7 McLeish J. Mothers in exile: maternity experiences of asylum seekers in England. London: Maternity Alliance 2002; 82. Copy in RCOG Library

8 Nabb J. Pregnant asylum-seekers: perceptions of maternity service provision.
Evidence Based Midwifery 2006; 4(3):89- 95. Copy in RCOG Library

9 Sami J, Quack Lötscher KC, Eperon I, et al. Giving birth in Switzerland: a qualitative study exploring migrant women's experiences during pregnancy and childbirth in Geneva and Zurich using focus groups. Reprod Health. 2019 Jul 22; 16(1):112.

10 Shortall C, McMorran J, Taylor K, et al. Experiences of pregnant migrant women receiving ante/peri and postnatal care in the UK: A Doctors of the World Report on the experiences of attendees at their London drop-in clinic. Doctors of the World/Medecins du Monde 2015; 12.


Early reports

1 Balarajan R, Soni Raleigh V, Botting B. Mortality from congenital malformations in England and Wales: variations by mother's country of birth. Arch Dis Child 1989; 64(10):1457-62.

2 Chazotte C, D'Alton ME. Maternal mortality in New York--Looking back, looking
forward. Semin Perinatol. 2016 Mar;40(2):132-5

3 Ibison JM, Swerdlow AJ, Head JA, Marmot M. Maternal mortality in England and Wales 1970-1985: an analysis by country of birth.  Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1996; 103(10): 973-80.


Confidential enquiries

1 Report on confidential enquiries into maternal deaths in England and Wales 1964-1966
Chapter 11. Ectopic pregnancy- Racial status
“Relevant information was not available in all cases but at least 13 patients (that is 30 per cent) were “coloured” and one was a Greek temporarily resident in this country

2 Why Mothers Die. Report on Confidential Enquiries into maternal deaths in the United Kingdom 1994-1996
Chapter 1. Introduction and key findings – Ethic origin.
Ethnic group information is now being collected as part of the Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) System for England. The data is incomplete but estimates for England appear to show that Black women have a three times greater risk of maternal mortality. It should be noted that due to the very small numbers it takes only small differences in the estimated proportions of a particular ethnic group to make a large difference in the maternal death rates.

3 Saving Lives, Improving Mothers’ Care. Lessons learned to inform maternity care form the UK and Ireland Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths and Morbidity 2015-17
There remains a five-fold difference in maternal mortality rates amongst women from Black ethnic backgrounds and an almost two-fold difference amongst women from Asian ethnic backgrounds compared to white women, emphasising the need for a continued focus on actions to address these disparities.