Vitamin D has an increasingly recognised repertoire of nonclassical actions, such as promoting insulin action and secretion, immune modulation and lung development. It therefore has the potential to influence many factors in the developing fetus.
This paper investigates the effects of vitamin D on the placento-fetal unit and the mother, in terms of calcium metabolism (classical actions) and noncalcium effects (nonclassical actions). There is little information on vitamin D intake in pregnancy and lactation and few studies on clinical outcomes. This paper provides an opinion for clinicians, including some suggested supplementation and treatment.